عنوان مقاله [English]
According to the Alawite teachings in Nahj-ul-Balaghah, the methods of leadership contain two components: "maximum flexibility" and "minimum intensity" (Nahj-ul-Balaghah, letter 46). This leadership style is similar to behavioral theories in management because in the neoclassical school, employees stand at the focus of attention and managers attempt to receive more output through staffing. Are maximum tolerance and flexibility the same as staffing? What are the components of flexibility and tolerance? Explaining the differences in behavioral theoretical views, this research is intended to identify the components of tolerance and flexibility and to prioritize them. This is a mixed research composed of qualitative (Ijtihadi) and quantitative method. The field of study mainly encompasses the sayings of Imam Ali (AS). According to Islamic teachings, neither work-orientation, nor employee-orientation is acceptable because they both share the tendency of increasing profit and an instrumental view to human beings. In Islamic sources, however, the focus is on the human being due to his inherent dignity. Therefore, man is supposed to be behaved graciously and elegantly. The most important indicators of gracefulness in dealing with employees to man include: kindness, forgiveness, getting advice, being at hand, attention to criticism, effective hearing, openness and respect, tolerance, benevolence, dependability, and consideration of capacities. The results recommended the degree of flexibility and tolerance of each indicators and their effect on leadership desirability. Interestingly, elimination or reducing the amount of negative behavior indicated greater impact on creating and enhancing positive behavior on leadership desirability.