A Critical Study of the Effect of Utilitarianism on Decision-Making Theories and Comparing It with Islamic Growth (Rushd) Theory


1 Student at master’s degree, Imam Sadegh University

2 Assistant professor at Imam Sadegh University

3 Associate professor at Imam Sadegh University


Utilitarianism, as a school of philosophy of ethics and politics, has affected various social and human sciences. In the meantime, the operational nature of the management discipline has made it more prepared to accept utilitarianism as a basis for its theories. Similarly, decision-making, among the various domains of management, has been most influenced by utilitarianism. Despite the great amount of criticism proposed against utilitarianism, there has been no changes regarding theories on decision-making. Following a foundational approach, the researchers have challenged management decision-making theories. In this regard, the theory of Islamic growth, with special comprehensiveness and high position in the Islamic thought, is proposed as a substitute for of utilitarianism as a basis. Hence, having conducted a thorough comparison between utilitarianism and growth theory, which required a detailed explanation of both of these theories, the researchers made an effort to extract the principles of each of them. Subsequently, having explained the beneficial nature of these theories, and the operational efficiency of the basis of Islamic growth for management decisions, the researchers tried to examine the effects of a fundamental shift from utilitarianism to Islamic growth by examining the utilitarian decision-making theories. Finally, the features of growth-oriented decision-making were introduced.


Acker, Joan (2008). Feminist Theory's Unfinished Business: Comment on Andersen. Gender and Society, Vol. 22, No. 1 (Feb. 2008), 104-108.
Ashcraft, Karen Lee (2001). Organized Dissonance: Feminist Bureaucracy as Hybrid Form. The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, No. 6 (Dec., 2001), 1301-1322
Beard, Alison (2015). Defend your Research Coe’s with Daughters Run More Socially Responsible firms. Harvard Business Review, November 2015
Bentham, Jeremy (2000). An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Kitchener: Batoche Books
Berinato, Scott (2016).  “Sleeping on It” Doesn’t Lead to Better Decisions. Harvard Business Review, MAY 2016, 30-31.
Brans JP (2002). Ethics and Decisions: the OATH of PROMETHEUS. European Journal of
Brunsson, nils (1985). The Irrational Organization: Irrationality as a Basis for Organizational Action and Change. Chichester: Wiley
Burrell, Gibson (1988). Modernism, Post Modernism and Organizational Analysis 2: The Contribution of Michel Foucault. Organization Studies, 1988 9: 221
Carson, Kevin A. (2008). Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective. BOOKSURGE
Crisp, Roger (1997), Mill on Utilitarianism, London: Routledge.
Crisp, Roger (2002), Ethics in Modern World, in New British Philosophy: The Interviews edited by Julian Baggini, Jeremy Stangroom, London: Routledge.
Davis, Ralph C. (1958). A Philosophy of Management, The Journal of the Academy of Management, Vol. 1, No. 3.
Donaldson, Lex (1996). For Positivist Organization Theory, London: SAGE.
Donner, Wendy (1998), Mill's utilitarianism, in: The Cambridge Companion to Mill, Edited by: John Skorupski, Cambridge University Press.
Eggleston, Ben (2014), the Cambridge companion to utilitarianism, London: Cambridge University Press.
Fleurbaey, Marc; Weymark, John A. (2008), Justice, Political Liberalism, and Utilitarianism: Themes from Harsanyi and Rawls, London: Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, J. W (2004). faith development at 30: naming the challenges of faith in a new millennium. Religious Education, Vol. 99 No. 4.
Gonzalez, Richard F and McMillan, Claude Jr. (1961). The Universality of American Management Philosophy, The Journal of the Academy of Management, Vol. 4, No. 1
Griffith, Mark F. (2006). John Locke’s Continuing Influence on Organization Theory and Behavior Entering the 21st Century. Handbook of Organization Theory and Management the Philosophical Approach. London: Taylor & Francis.
Hennink, Monique M. (2007). International Focus Group Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hollnagel, Erik (2007), “Decisions about What and Decisions about how”, Decision Making in Complex Environments, Burlington: ASHGATE.
Kaufman, Herbert (1964). Organization Theory and Political Theory, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Mar., 1964), pp. 5-14.
Kymlicka, Will (2002). Contemporary political philosophy, New York: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS.
Lamont, Corliss (1997), The Philosophy of Humanism, New York: Half-Moon Foundation, American Humanist Association.
Litzinger, William D. and Schaefer, Thomas E. (1966). Perspective: Management Philosophy Enigma. The Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4 (Dec., 1966), 337-343.
LOMASKY, LOREN (1987). Persons, Rights, and the Moral Community, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Louis P. Pojman (2009), Ethics Discovering Right and Wrong, London: University of Tennessee, Third Edition.
Maccoby, Michael (2004).  Why People Follow the Leader: The Power of Transference. Harvard Business Review: SEPTEMBER 2004.
Martin, Lawrence L (2006). Jeremy Bentham: On Organization Theory and Decision Making, Public Policy Analysis, and Administrative Management. Handbook of Organization Theory and Management the Philosophical Approach. London: Taylor & Francis.
Mill, John Stuart (2006), The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, by F.E.L. Priestley, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Mintzberg, Henry (2007), Tracking Strategies, New York, oxford university press.
Morgan, David L. (1998), The Focus Group Guidebook. New York: SAGE.
NOZICK, ROBERT (1974). Anarchy, State, and Utopia, New York: Basic Books.
Operational Research, 140: 191-196.
Plant, Raymond (1991), Modern Political Thought, Oxford, Blackwell.
Rawls, John (1971) A Theory of Justice (Oxford University Press, London).
Rich, F. M. (1959), A Businessman's Management Philosophy, The Journal of the Academy of Management, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Aug., 1959), 89-96.
Riley, Jonathan (1998), Mill's political economy, in: The Cambridge Companion to Mill, Edited by: John Skorupski, Cambridge University Press.
Ryan, Alan (1990), The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill, Humanities Press International, second edition.
Simon, Herbert A (1946). The Proverbs of Administration. Public Administration Review (Winter 1946): 53-67.
Simon, Herbert A and March, James G. (1993). Organizations. Cambridge, Mass. [U.A]: Blackwell.
Simon, Herbert A.  )1960), The New science of management decision. New York: Harpar and row.
Simon, Herbert A. (1972), theories of bounded rationality. North Holland Publishing company.
Skorupski, John (1998), The Cambridge Companion to Mill, Cambridge University Press.
Solomon, Robert C. (2005), On Ethics and Living Well, Austin: University of Texas.
Spicer, Michael W (2006). The Legacy of David Hume for American Public Administration: Empiricism, Skepticism, and Constitutionalism.  Handbook of Organization Theory and Management the Philosophical Approach. London: Taylor & Francis.
Staveren, Irene (2007), Beyond Utilitarianism and Deontology, Review of Political Economy, Volume 19, Number 1, January: 21–35.
Tanner, Carmen (2007), Influence of deontological versus consequentialist orientations on act choices and framing effects: When principles are more important than consequences, European Journal of Social Psychology, Eur. J. Soc. Psychol.
Tsoukas, Haridimos and Knudsen, Christian (2003). The Oxford handbook of organization theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
Turnbull, Peter and Wass, Victoria (1997). Marxist management: sophisticated human relations in a high street retail store. Industrial Relations Journal.
Weber, Max (1946). From Max Weber: Essays in sociology, Gerth,H.H and Mills, C. wright. New York: Oxford university press.
Wharton, Amy S. (1991). Structure and Agency in Socialist-Feminist Theory. Gender and Society, Vol. 5, No. 3, Special Issue: Marxist Feminist Theory (Sep., 1991), 373-389.
Yancey Martin, Patricia (1990). Rethinking Feminist Organizations. Gender and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Jun., 1990), 182-206.